KROCHMAL, ABRAHAM

KROCHMAL, ABRAHAM (d. 1888), Galician-born scholar and writer. Very little is known of Krochmal's life. His birthdate is put between 1818 and 1823 and his birthplace identified as Brody or Zolkiew. He studied Jewish and rabbinic subjects with his father nachman krochmal , with solomon kluger of brody , and with Ẓevi Hirsch Chajes in Zolkiew and received a general education as well. He led a rather unsettled life, living precariously in Lemberg, Brody, Odessa, and finally in Frankfurt on the Main. In Galicia and Odessa he moved in Haskalah circles and was friendly with peretz smolenskin and moses leib lilienblum . Krochmal's scholarly interests encompassed Bible, Talmud, and philosophy. He regularly contributed to He-Ḥalutz , Ha-Meliẓ, Ha-Maggid, and other Hebrew periodicals; his articles are collected in Aguddat Ma'amarim (1885). His Da'at Elohim ba-Areẓ (1863) is a philosophy of history showing the influence of his father's writings and of the German idealistic philosophy of the 19th century; Iyyun Tefillah (1885) is a historical study on the God-man relationship; Yerushalayim ha-Benuyah (1867) contains interpretations of sayings of the Jerusalem Talmud; his Ha-Ketav ve-ha-Mikhtav (1873) is a collection of textual conjectures on the Bible, with a German translation; and Theologie der Zukunft (1872) is a critical-philosophical tractate on the justification of religious consciousness. Krochmal was a radical and rather unsystematic thinker. Strongly influenced by Spinoza, to whom he devoted his Evenha-Roshah (1871), by Kant, and, above all by his father, he saw in Judaism an ethico-cultural idea which had undergone a long historical development. The loss of statehood and diasporal existence was an important element in this development; but fundamental ethical and religious principles, such as the belief in one God, the love of one's neighbor, and the self-perfection of man, were preserved. Krochmal rejected the dogmatism of the medieval religious philosophers but recognized the sanctity of ritual and commandments as a means of moral education. At the same time he pleaded for reform. In his Bible and Talmud studies, too, he adopted a critical stance. He was the first to recognize Spinoza as the fountainhead of textual criticism of the Bible. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Klausner, Sifrut, 4 (1954), 78–103; Waxman, Literature, 3 (19602), 573ff. (Getzel Kressel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Krochmal, Abraham — (d. 1888)    Galician bom writer and scholar. He lived in Lemberg, Brody, Odessa and Frankfurt am Main. In Galicia and Odessa he moved in Haskalah circles. He wrote studies of the Talmud and the Bible, philosophical works on Judaism, and articles …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • KROCHMAL, NACHMAN — (ReNaK; 1785–1840), philosopher, historian, one of the founders of the science of Judaism (wissenschaft des judentums ), and a leader of the haskalah movement in Eastern Europe. Krochmal was born in the town of Brody, Galicia. His father Shalom… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KROCHMAL, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ABRAHAM — (c. 1600–1661), chief rabbi of Moravia. A native of Cracow and pupil of joel sirkes , in his youth he was already the leader of a circle of scholars which included …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ABRAHAM — (originally Abram; Heb. אַבְרָהָם, אַבְרָם), first patriarch of the people of Israel. The form Abram occurs in the Bible only in Genesis 11:26–17:5, Nehemiah 9:7, and I Chronicles 1:26. Otherwise, Abraham appears invariably, and the name is borne …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Abraham Epstein — (December 19, 1841–1918) was a Russo Austrian rabbinical scholar born in Staro Constantinov, Volhynia. Epstein diligently studied the works of Levinsohn, Krochmal, and S. D. Luzzatto, and when he traveled in western Europe for the first time in… …   Wikipedia

  • Krochmal — Nachman Kohen Krochmal (* 17. Februar 1785 in Brody, Galizien; † 31. Juli 1840 in Ternopil) war ein jüdischer Religionsphilosoph, Historiker und Autor. Sein Buch, das er zunächst Tore des geläuterten Glaubens nannte, wurde 1851 von Leopold Zunz… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abraham Epstein —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Abraham Epstein (économiste). Abraham Epstein (hébreu : אברהם עפשטיין) est un rabbin russo autrichien des XIXe et XXe siècles (19 décembre 1841 – 1918), spécialiste de la littérature rabbinique.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nachman Kohen Krochmal — (* 17. Februar 1785 in Brody, Galizien; † 31. Juli 1840 in Ternopil) war ein jüdischer Religionsphilosoph, Historiker und Autor. Sein Buch, das er zunächst Tore des geläuterten Glaubens nannte, wurde 1851 von Leopold Zunz postum unter dem Titel… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nachman Krochmal — Nachman Kohen Krochmal (* 17. Februar 1785 in Brody, Galizien; † 31. Juli 1840 in Ternopol) war ein jüdischer Religionsphilosoph, Historiker und Autor. Sein Hauptwerk More Nebukhe ha Zeman, das er zunächst Tore des geläuterten Glaubens nannte,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Menachem Mendel Krochmal — Not to be confused with Nachman Krochmal. Menahem Mendel ben Abraham Krochmal (c. 1600 1661) was a Moravian rabbi born in Kraków. His teacher in the Talmud was Joel Sirkes, author of Bayis Chadash. Krochmal soon distinguished himself so highly… …   Wikipedia

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